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Archive for February 2013

February 26, 20228 months ago

Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful.

We have sent Our apostles with veritable signs and brought down with them scriptures

and the scales of justice, so that men might conduct themselves with fairness”

PREAMBLE

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the cultural, social, political

and economic institutions of the people of Iran, based on Islamic principles and rules, and » Read more

February 26, 20228 months ago

Monetary Policy

The main objectives of macroeconomic policies, in general, and monetary policies, in particular, are price stability, economic growth and a favorable employment level. Since it is hard for policy makers to achieve the ultimate goal directly, therefore, determining intermediate objectives and introducing appropriate instruments are deemed necessary. In case of monetary policy, the issue of setting an intermediate objective is often reflected in controlling rate of return and money supply. With the monetary policy aimed at controlling monetary aggregates, attempts are made to prevent monetary expansion, incompatible with liquidity and inflation targets set in the development plans, and to finance productive and investment sectors. » Read more

February 25, 20228 months ago

Gandhi’s Goat story and Iran’s nuclear program

Gandhi, who almost everyone heard about him to date, was a free man with no abnormal attitude! He knew very well about the complexity and tough-to-violate-LAWs in Britain! He knew there is no way to bring animals into Britain’s parliament! He knew the guards at the entrance will avoid Gandhiji entering to the parliament with his goat! But! Insist of Gandhi made the parliament to add a new law to their Guinness-record-book-of-laws, which, “avoids entering of any animals to Britain’s parliament -except Gandhi’s goat”!

The story of Gandhi’s goat does not occur for everyone. The incident occurred due to British Parliament’s respect for Gandhi. This respect was based on Gandhi’s values, i.e World Peace and peaceful values.

Despite access to nuclear enrichment technology, Iran has repeatedly declared its opposition to build a nuclear weapon. In all inspections done by IAEA on Iran’s nuclear program over 10 years ago, no evidence have been found that indicate Iran is trying to build nuclear weapons. Even the obstacles world powers put in the way of iran, neither dissuade the contry from a decision to refrain from bulding making weapons nor preclude the development of the country.

The term “peaceful nuclear program”, which is now used even by propaganda  media (including VOA), is a term that is used only for Iran.

Like Britain parliament that understood, which there is no way to avoid Gandhi entering the parliament without his goat, nowadays international community and world powers have to face the reality and to understand there is nothing to abandon determined Iran from developing its  peaceful nuclear program.

For the sake of new advancements and increased applications of nuclear ENERGY, we will have to recognize Iran’s right to develop its enrichment program for the peaceful purposes some day.

IRAN, as its high rank officials repeatedly stated, will not use nuclear developments for Non-peaceful purposes!

Be sure, like Gandhi’s goat story ended up with no problems, Iran’s nuclear issue will not be problematic for anyone.

February 25, 20228 months ago

Iranian Month, Origin of The Names

The names of the 12 Persian months are taken from the ancient Zoroastrian texts and the origins are deeply rooted in their belief system.  This was the religion of Iran before the advent of Islam in seventh century AD. Zoroastrians believed in two primal forces, good and evil. Everything that supported and enriched life was good and all that threatened life and disturbed order was bad. The Lord of Wisdom (Ahura Mazda) created goodness and the Hostile Spirit (Angra Mainyu) created all that was bad (Ahriman in modern Persian).

Zoroastrians’ Universe lasts for 12000 years; there are four phases, each for 3000 years. At the first one, good and bad are separated. » Read more

February 25, 20228 months ago

Traditional Food

Cuisine of Iran is of a wide variety and the culinary of Iran reflects the tradition of the country and the region in a great way. Cuisine of Iran comprises of both cooked and raw foods. The cooked foods are mostly non-vegetarian and the raw foods comprises of fruits and nuts, herbs and vegetables. Cuisine of Iran speaks of the wide variety of appetizers and desserts that is more famous all over the world. Cuisine of Iran goes bland without the spices used in a special way in most of the dishes.
Some of the major dishes that Cuisines of Iran extensively and importantly consists of are the rice, bread. There are varieties of rice preparation, the preparation differs with region and course of the meal. Chelow, Damy, Pollo and Kateh are the most common rice » Read more

February 23, 20228 months ago

Iran-Iraq war

Cyaxares of Media - Ahasuerus of the Bible, Book of Daniel - had unified his tribes and allied them with Babylonia to take Nineveh and destroy Assyria. He furthered his realm by investing Urartu and pushing towards Lydia. His son Astyages - the biblical Darius the Mede of the Book of Daniel - allied his land with the Persians by marrying his only daughter to Cambyses, the King of Anzan (Persia). Their son Cyrus, heir of the thrones of Persia and Media, was destined to become the founder of the Empire.

How this came about is not quite clear. It is sure that Astyages had introduced Babylonian and Assyrian court ceremonial, with its worship of the god-like king, into Media, which was repugnant to his tribes. Cyrus renounced his vassalage and stopped paying tribute. The Median army was defeated close to Parsagad (Pasargadae) when much of it defected to Cyrus, and the Persians and Medes were united (533 B.C.). Cyrus accepted his Median grandfather as senior advisor, incorporating his Medes as equal partners into the empire and then negotiated the federation of Elam and Urartu as first satrapies, setting the peculiar pattern of the “federal” Empire which followed. The Medes and Persians comprised the nobility and ruling caste and did not have to pay taxes, in return for which exemption they formed and recruited the bulk of the army.

Croesus, King of Lydia, used the news of the civil war in Iran to attack the Median border provinces. Cyrus responded by leading his army through northern Mesopotamia. A battle was joined at the Cilician Gates, which after heavy losses on both sides ended with a draw. Cyrus feinted withdrawal, Crocuses returned to Sardis and disbanded his army, since winter had set in and snow could be expected at any moment. Cyrus waited for several weeks and then marched his army in forced marches to Sardis, to surprise Croesus completely. Herodotus reports that Cyrus’ progress was so swift that he “arrived his own messenger”. The Lydian cavalry rallied and attacked with desperate force only to be foiled by another Cyrus stratagem. Knowing that horses shied away from camels and that no infantry levies were available to Croesus at the time, he put his camel troops into the first line of battle. He thus invested all of Lydia (547) and secured Asia Minor as well as the strategically important area north of Syria. Unlike his Mesopotamian predecessors, who executed the conquered kings, Cyrus incorporated the old rulers into his government and the humbled Croesus, whose egotism and wealth are a favorite subject of Greek legend, became a major advisor. From King of the Persians, king of Anzan, Cyrus had become King of Kings. King of All Lands. The attack on Mesopotamia was mounted, Babylon was taken in 538 and within 14 years after the unification of Persians and Medes the empire encompassed the entire Persian highland, Mesopotamia and Transoxiana in Central Asia.

pasa3

During his ensuing eastern campaign Cyrus defeated Vistashpa, King of Chorasmia and first convert of the prophet Zoroaster, incorporating his land into the Persian Empire. Cyrus died later in the same campaign in 530 B.C. in battle against the Amazon Queen of the Sogdians in Transoxiana.

The Persians did not come only as conquerors, but as revolutionary innovators. They brought stability and order through the famed Laws of the Medes and Persians, as well as an unheard-of respect for existing religious institutions, which guaranteed freedom of worship and accepted the religions of all peoples. They permitted the Jews to return to Jerusalem and granted them aid funds to reconstruct their temple, or to settle wherever they wanted in the Achaemenian Empire. Large Jewish communities still exist in Iran from that time. (Isfahan and Shiraz are modern cities believed to have grown out of original Jewish settlements). A general tax of 10% was charged which guaranteed security and freedom from military service - a system adopted 1,000 years later by Islam.

In arid areas the Persian method of irrigation - the qanat system - was introduced and large areas of land made fertile. This proved a resounding success in the Egyptian oases, and in westernmost China. Safe roads permitted unrestricted travel and commerce between the Indus River, Transoxiana, Siberia, and the Mediterranean. Trade was facilitated by one monetary unit, the Daric, of equal value and grade in all parts of the empire.

It should therefore not be astonishing that many of the small Greek trading communities in Asia Minor supported Persian rule and believed they had everything to lose by Greek nationalism. There was a strong “Persian” party In Athens The Persian Wars between “civilized” Greece and “barbarian” Persia were started, according to the Greek father of history Herodotus, by the “mischief” of the Athenians, looting Lydian cities under Persian protection, for profit.

The unity of the Persian homeland was strengthened by the development of three capitals. For winter, the reception of foreigners and general business: Susa in Elam. For summer and the archives: Median Hamadan, the Ecbatana of the Bible. For the spring festival and New Year’s celebration: Persepolis - whose very existence was unknown to foreigners. Pasargadae continued to be used for the coronation ceremonies of new kings.

A system of royal governors (satraps) was worked out, nobles who were related to the king by blood, or who had proven their merit. The centrifugal tendencies in such a great empire were combated by an intelligence service of trusted servants of the king, sent to control the administration of the provinces and reporting at least once a year directly to him - probably at the New Year’s festival in Persepolis. The military administration of each province was under an army general, directly responsible to the king rather than to the local satrap. The basic structure of this highly original administration was initiated by Cyrus the Great and perfected by Darius the Great after he had to combat revolutions in almost all satrapies.

hakha

Egypt was added to the empire under Cambyses (529-522). A canal was dug between the Nile and the Red Sea, facilitating transport between the Mediterranean and the eastern shore of Africa and India.

The system worked excellently until sloth and maladministration, incapable rulers, continuous blood letting amongst the nobles, neglect and incompetence of military leadership led to its collapse under Alexander’s thrust in 330 B.C.

February 23, 20228 months ago

Iran; champions of the Freestyle Wrestling World Cup

Iran won the 2013 Freestyle Wrestling World Cup on Friday, by beating Russia 6-1 in Tehran.

Also, in the bronze medal match which was held before the final on the same day, the United States overpowered Belarus 6-1.

Iranian wrestlers beat their Russian rivals in the 55-, 60-, 74-, 84-, 96-, and 120-kilogram weight classes.

Iran’s Hassan Rahimi in 55 kg and Masoud Esmailpour in 60 kg both dominated and gave Iran the early 2-0 lead.

Then Mehdi Taghavi lost in the 66 kg category. Sadegh Goudarzi made a great come back to win in 74 kg. The most important battle was Ehsan Lashgari who sealed the win for Iran in the 84 kg. » Read more

February 19, 20228 months ago

Ancient Iran through Ages (728BCE to CE651)

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Medes / Median (Mâdhâ) Dynasty;  728-550BCE

 2achaemenid hakhmaneshiyn dynasty  550-330bce

Achaemenid (Hakhâmaneshiyân) Dynasty;  550-330BCE

3achaemenid hakhmaneshiyn dynasty  550-330bce

Parthian /Arsacid (Ashkâniân) Dynasty;  247BCE-CE224

4map_of_iran_under_parthian_dynasty_small

Sasanid / Sasanian (Sâsâniân) Dynasty;  CE224-640

6modern iran

Modern Iran

February 18, 20228 months ago

Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei reiterated Saturday that the Islamic republic is not after building nuclear weapons.

He stated that what prevents Iran from seeking a nuclear weapon is not the fear from America, but the religious and Islamic belief which prohibits producing, using, or threatening by these weapons, and rather calls for removing them.

“We believe that nuclear weapons (in the world) must be obliterated, and we do not intend to make nuclear weapons. But if we had decided to possess nuclear weapons, no power could have prevented us.”

He considered that the contradiction in the US statements and acts is an indication to its irrationality, indicating that US President Barack Obama’s speech on preventing Iran from possessing a nuclear weapon is a forgery. » Read more

February 16, 20228 months ago

Iran registered a new record in eye operations

Tehran’s Farabi hospital registered a new record on the number of eye surgeries per one day.
On Thursday, Surgeons performed a number of 600 eye surgeries in Farabi Hospital.
It is considered a new record in eye operations.
Dr. Jabarvand, head of Farabi Eye Hospital, told Realiran that Farabi is one of the best equipped hospitals for eye surgery and many patients per year are admitted to the hospital.
He added that registering the new surgery eye record in Farabi is one pride for the hospital and in general Iranian medical system. » Read more

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